International Cooperation for Education in Developing Countries
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. Please check back later for the full article.
At the intersection of education, development, and international cooperation is a shift in trends, as well as ongoing challenges. Education has expanded rapidly throughout the world. Even so, the industrialized nations are decades, if not generations, ahead of parts of the developing world in terms of enrollment and learning attainment. For reasons of equity and economic development alone, it is imperative that all efforts be put to the task of achieving universal school enrollment and learning. To achieve such a goal in the context of what some researchers have termed a 100-year gap requires efforts on the part of national governments and international cooperation on the part of all nations of the world. International cooperation in education includes: (a) the institutions and architecture of international organizations; (b) development assistance, which is closely related; and (c) international agreements to promote education and other development goals. In a broad sense, these initiatives can be seen as moving toward increasingly cooperative relationships between wealthier nations and developing countries. International institutions involved in education include various agencies of the United Nations (e.g., UNESCO, UNICEF, ILO, UNHCR), as well as the multilateral development banks, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, International Development Association; regional development banks—Asian Development Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, and so forth; and bilateral development agencies. Development assistance is provided in the form of technical and financial assistance to national governments by bilateral development agencies, the multilateral development agencies, UN agencies, as well as an increasing number of non-governmental agencies (NGOs). The UN Declaration on Human Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child are foundational documents laying out the rights of all children to education and the obligation of governments to ensure that children have access to quality education. Several global initiatives have led the way toward increasing educational participation in developing countries, including Education for All, the Millennium Development Goals, the UN Global Education First Initiative, and the Sustainable Development Goals.